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The local independence movement was composed of Chilean-born criollos, who sought political and economic independence from Spain. The movement for independence was far Date of latin american revolution gaining unanimous support among Lattin, who became divided between independentists and royalists. Revolutiob started as an elitist political movement against their colonial master, latln ended as a full-fledged civil war. Traditionally, the process is revolutlon into three stages: Patria ViejaReconquistaand Patria Nueva. Ecuadorian War of Independence The first uprising against Spanish rule took Dat inand criollos in Ecuador set up a junta on September Datte, to rule in the name of regolution Bourbon monarch; but as Dage, it allowed assertion of their own power.
The Spanish defeat guaranteed the liberation of Ecuador. Mexican War of Independence Independence latkn Mexico was a protracted struggle from until the fall of royal government in and the establishment of independent Mexico. In the Viceroyalty of New Spainas elsewhere in Spanish America inreacted to the unexpected French invasion of the Iberian peninsula and the ouster of the Bourbon king, replaced by Joseph Bonaparte. Iturrigaray was ousted by pro-royalists. A few from among the creole elites sought independence, including Juan Aldamaand Ignacio Allendeand the secular parish priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.
Hidalgo made a proclamation in his home parish of Dolores, which was not recorded in writing at the time, but denounced bad government and gachupines pejorative for peninsular-born Spaniardsand declared independence. Hidalgo was caught, defrocked, and executed inalong with Allende. Their heads remained on display until The struggle of Mexican insurgents continued under the leadership of Vicente Guerrero and Guadalupe Victoria. From to there was a stalemate in New Spain, with royalist forces unable to defeat the insurgents and the insurgents unable to expand beyond their narrow territory in the southern region. Again, events in Spain intervened, with an uprising of military men against Ferdinand VII and the restoration of the liberal Spanish Constitution ofwhich mandated a constitutional monarchy and curtailed the power of the Roman Catholic Church.
The monarch had repudiated the constitution once the Spanish monarchy was restored in For conservatives in New Spain, these changed political circumstances threatened the institutions of church and state. Iturbide proclaimed the Plan de Igualawhich called for independence, equality of peninsular and American-born Spaniards, and a monarchy with a prince from Spain as king. He persuaded the insurgent Guerrero to form an alliance with him and creating the Army of the Three Guarantees. With no European monarch presenting himself for the crown of Mexico, Iturbide himself was proclaimed emperor Agustin I in He was overthrown in and Mexico was established as a republic.
Decades of political and economic instability ensued which resulted in a decline in population.
At the same time, however, they feared that the removal of Spanish control might bring about a revolution that would destroy their own power. Creole elites in Venezuela had good reason to fear such a possibility, for a massive revolution had recently exploded in the French Caribbean colony of Saint-Domingue. Beginning ina massive slave revolt sparked a general insurrection against the plantation system and French colonial power. The rebellion developed into both a civil war, pitting blacks and mulattos against whites, and an international conflict, as England and Spain supported the white plantation owners and rebels, respectively.
By the first years of the 19th century, the rebels had shattered what had been a model colony and forged the independent nation of Haiti. Partly inspired by those Caribbean events, slaves in Venezuela carried out their own uprisings in the s. Just as it served as a beacon of hope for the enslaved, Haiti was a warning of everything that might go wrong for elites in the cacao-growing areas of Venezuela and throughout slave societies in the Date of latin american revolution. Creole anxieties contributed to the persistence of strong loyalist factions in the Viceroyalty of New Granadabut they did not prevent the rise of an independence struggle there.
Creoles organized revolutionary governments that proclaimed some social and economic reforms inand in Venezuela they openly declared a break with Spain the following year. Forces loyal to Spain fought the Venezuelan patriots from the start, leading to a pattern in which patriot rebels held the capital city and its surroundings but could not dominate large areas of the countryside. Some saw the earthquake that wreaked particular destruction in patriot-held areas in as a sign of divine displeasure with the revolution. That year certainly was the onset of a difficult period for the independence cause. With loyalists displaying the same passion and violence, as well as obtaining significant support from the common people of mixed ethnicitythe revolutionists achieved only short-lived victories.
By the independence movements in Venezuela and almost all across Spanish South America seemed moribund. The following year a larger and revitalized independence movement emerged, winning the struggle in the north and taking it into the Andean highlands. While laying out sharp criticisms of Spanish colonialism, the document also looked toward the future. Although liberal in some respects, in the Jamaica Letter and elsewhere, he expressed strong doubts about the capacity of his fellow Latin Americans for self-government, revealing his socially conservative and politically authoritarian side. He believed that a virtuous governing system would not be possible if the nation was divided by ethnicity.
The Liberator emerged as a strong military and political force in the struggles that began in At this point he expanded the focus of the movement, shifting his attention to New Granada and courting supporters among the casta majority. Consolidating victory in the north proved difficult. Furthermore, loyalist supporters still held much of Venezuela, parts of the Colombian Andes, and all of Ecuador. Still, the tide had turned in favour of independence, and further energetic military campaigns liberated New Granada and Venezuela by Gran Colombia, There the southern and northern armies came together in a pincer movement to quash the remaining loyalist strength.
From that point on, the northerners took charge of the struggle in Peru and Bolivia. While he organized the government there, his lieutenants set out to win the highlands of Peru and Upper Peru. Within two years independence fighters mopped up the last of loyalist resistance, and South America was free of Spanish control.
As was the latij in Lima, Mexican cities had a powerful segment of Creoles and peninsular Spaniards whom the old lxtin system had served well. Mexican Creoles, like those in Peru, had the spectre of a major social uprising to persuade them to cling to Spain and stability for a while longer. For many of the powerful in Mexican society, revolhtion break with Spain ameican mainly a loss of traditional status and power and possibly social revolution. What was unique to the Mexican case was that the popular rebellion that exploded in was actually refolution first major call for independence in the region. Rejecting the notion of a congress that would address the question of governance in the absence of the Spanish king, leading peninsulars in Mexico City deposed the viceroy revokution persecuted Creoles.
They then welcomed weaker viceroys whom they knew they could anerican. Although framed as aemrican appeal for resistance to the peninsulars, the Grito was in effect a call for independence. The americah that Hidalgo stirred among Indians and mestizos shocked and frightened both Creole and peninsular Dage. During their campaign the ltain of this force attacked the persons and property of peninsular and Creole elites. The movement for independence was becoming a america and class war. Perhaps fearing the atrocities his troops might commit americcan, Hidalgo prevented the movement from lxtin Mexico City.
Shortly afterward troops amreican the viceregal government caught up with the rebels. After a dramatic military defeat, Hidalgo was captured in early and executed. Under Morelos the rebellion gained clearer objectives of independence and social and economic reform as well as greater organization and a wider social base. With the defeat and death of Morelos inthe potential national scope of the movement came to an effective end. Final independence, in fact, was not the result of the efforts of Hidalgo, Morelos, or the forces that had made up their independence drive. It came instead as a conservative initiative led by military officers, merchants, and the Roman Catholic Church.
The liberals who carried out the revolt in Spain intended to eliminate the special privileges of the church and the military. Anxious over that threat to the strength of two of the pillars of the Mexican government and newly confident in their ability to keep popular forces in check, Creoles turned against Spanish rule in — Two figures from the early rebellion played central roles in liberating Mexico. The two came together behind an agreement known as the Iguala Plan. Centred on provisions of independence, respect for the church, and equality between Mexicans and peninsulars, the plan gained the support of many Creoles, Spaniards, and former rebels.
The consequences of that overthrow extended from Mexico through Central America. They formed a federation, the United Provinces of Central Americawhich held together only untilwhen regionalism led to the creation of separate countries in the region. Brazil Brazil gained its independence with little of the violence that marked similar transitions in Spanish America. Conspiracies against Portuguese rule during —98 showed that some groups in Brazil had already been contemplating the idea of independence in the late 18th century. Still, the impulse toward independence was less powerful in Brazil than in Spanish America. Portugal, with more limited financial, human, and military resources than Spain, had never ruled its American subjects with as heavy a hand as its Iberian neighbour.
Portugal neither enforced commercial monopolies as strictly nor excluded the American-born from high administrative positions as widely as did Spain. Many Brazilian-born and Portuguese elites had received the same education, especially at the University of Coimbra in Portugal. Their economic interests also tended to overlap. The reliance of the Brazilian upper classes on African slavery, finally, favoured their continued ties to Portugal. The size of the resulting slave population—approximately half the total Brazilian population in —also meant that Creoles shied away from political initiatives that might mean a loss of control over their social inferiors.
The key step in the relatively bloodless end of colonial rule in Brazil was the transfer of the Portuguese court from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro in The arrival of the court transformed Brazil in ways that made its return to colony status impossible. The unprecedented concentration of economic and administrative power in Rio de Janeiro brought a new integration to Brazil.
The emergence of that capital as a large and increasingly sophisticated urban centre also expanded markets for Brazilian manufactures and other goods. Even more important to the development of manufacturing in Brazil was one of the first acts undertaken there by the Portuguese ruler, Prince Regent John: Brazil headed into a political crisis when groups in Portugal tried to reverse the metropolitanization of their former colony. With the end of the Napoleonic Wars came calls for John to return to Lisbon. At first he demurred and in even raised Brazil to the status of kingdom, legally equal to Portugal within the empire that he ruled.
If he moved back to Lisbon, he might lose Brazil, but if he remained in Rio, he might well lose Portugal. Finally, after liberal revolts in Lisbon and Oporto inthe Portuguese demands became too strong for him to resist. It was Dom Pedro who, at the urging of local elites, oversaw the final emergence of an independent Brazil. Matters were pushed toward that end by Portuguese reaction against the rising power of their former colony. Although the government constituted by the liberals after allowed Brazilian representation in a Cortes, it was clear that Portugal now wanted to reduce Brazil to its previous colonial condition, endangering all the concessions and powers the Brazilian elite had won.
By late the situation was becoming unbearable. The Cortes now demanded that Dom Pedro return to Portugal. When Pedro proclaimed its independence on Sept.